259. Evaluation of enzymatic and magnetic properties of γ-glutamyl-[1-13C]glycine and its deuteration toward longer retention of the hyperpolarized state

Yohei Kondo, Yutaro Saito, Abdelazim Elsayed Elhelaly, Fuminori Hyodo, Tatsuya Nishihara, Marino Itoda, Hiroshi Nonaka, Masayuki Matsuoc and Shinsuke Sando; RSC Advances; (2021); DOI: 10.1039/d1ra07343e (open access)

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is an emerging cutting-edge method of acquiring metabolic and physiological information in vivo. We recently developed γ-glutamyl-[1-13C]glycine (γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly) as a DNP nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) molecular probe to detect γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity in vivo. However, the detailed enzymatic and magnetic properties of this probe remain unknown. Here, we evaluate a γ-Glu–Gly scaffold and develop a deuterated probe, γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly-d2, that can realize a longer lifetime of the hyperpolarized signal. We initially evaluated the GGT-mediated enzymatic conversion of γ-Glu–Gly and the magnetic properties of 13C-enriched γ-Glu–Gly (γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly and γ-[5-13C]Glu–Gly) to support the validity of γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly as a DNP NMR molecular probe for GGT. We then examined the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly and γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly-d2 under various conditions (D2O, PBS, and serum) and confirmed that the T1 of γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly and γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly-d2 was maintained for 30 s (9.4 T) and 41 s (9.4 T), respectively, even in serum. Relaxation analysis of γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly revealed a significant contribution of the dipole–dipole interaction and the chemical shift anisotropy relaxation pathway (71% of the total relaxation rate at 9.4 T), indicating the potential of deuteration and the use of a lower magnetic field for realizing a longer T1. In fact, by using γ-Glu-[1-13C]Gly-d2 as a DNP probe, we achieved longer retention of the hyperpolarized signal at 1.4 T.