Complementary Methods: γ-Beam Techniques, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

In this chapter we look at a range of techniques which can provide complementary information on the properties of Cultural Heritage objects. The first of these, Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF), is a novel technique which tunes high energy γ-rays to particular nuclei. The high energy γ-rays can probe the volume of cultural heritage artefacts, providing elemental analysis information. The technique of Computed Tomography (CT), using high energy γ-beams, provides a new imaging method to map the internal densities of artefacts. These techniques complement the more established method of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), which identifies elements, near the surface of objects, on the basis of their characteristic X-ray emission. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging is another imaging technique, extensively used in medical imaging. However, its use in imaging Cultural Heritage artefacts is less well known. Here the use of NMR probes to study the restoration of paintings is described.

L. Balabanski, B. Blümich, N. Gelli, V. Iancu, M. Iovea, A. Kriznar, M. Massi, A. Mazzinghi, I. Ortega-Feliu, M.A. Respaldiza, C. Ruberto, S. Scrivano, G. Suliman, Z. Szőkefalvi-Nagy, C.A. Ur, W. Zia, Complementary Methods: γ-Beam Techniques, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); in: A. Macková, D. MacGregor, F. Azaiez, J. Nyberg, E. Piasetzky, eds., NUCLEAR PHYSICS FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE, Nuclear Physics Division of the European Physical Society, EDP Sciences, 2016 pp. 37-53, DOI: 10.1071/978-2-7598-2091-7 (open access).                                       https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1275056/FULLTEXT01.pdf