The investigation of fluids confined to porous media is the oldest topic of investigation with small-scale nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) instruments, as such instruments are mobile and can be moved to the site of the object, such as the borehole of an oil well. While the analysis was originally restricted by the inferior homogeneity of the employed magnets to relaxation measurements, today, portable magnets are available for all types of NMR measurements concerning relaxometry, imaging and spectroscopy in two types of geometries. These geometries refer to closed magnets that surround the sample and open magnets, which are brought close to the object for measurement. The current state of the art of portable, small-scale NMR instruments is reviewed and recent applications of such instruments are featured. These include the porosity analysis and description of diesel particulate filters, the determination of the moisture content in walls from gray concrete, new approaches to analyze the pore space and moisture migration in soil, and the constitutional analysis of the mortar base of ancient wall paintings.
Blümich, F. Casanova, M. Dabrowski, E. Danieli, L. Evertz, A. Haber, M. Van Landeghem, S. Haber-Pohlmeier, A. Olaru, J. Perlo, O. Sucre, Small-scale instrumentation for nuclear magnetic resonance of porous media, New J. Phys 13 (2011) 015003-1 – 015003-15 (open access). https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/13/1/015003