129. Penicillium camemberti galacturonate reductase: C-1 oxidation/reduction of uronic acids and substrate inhibition mitigation by aldonic acids
The enzyme galacturonate oxidoreductase PcGOR from Penicillium camemberti reduces the C-1 carbon of D-glucuronate and C-4 epimer D-galacturonate to their corresponding aldonic acids, important reactions in both pectin catabolism and ascorbate biosynthesis. PcGOR was active on both glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid, with similar substrate specificities (kcat/Km) using the preferred co-substrate NADPH. Substrate acceptance extended to lactone congeners, and D-glucurono-3,6-lactone was converted to L-gulono-1,4-lactone, an immediate precursor of ascorbate. Reaction with glucuronate showed only minor substrate inhibition, and the product L-gulonate and L-gulono-1,4-lactone were both found to be competitive inhibitors with Ki in the low mM range. In contrast, reaction with C-4 epimer galacturonate displayed marked substrate inhibition. Moreover, the product L-galactonate and L-galactono-1,4-lactone were observed to mitigate substrate inhibition by galacturonate, with the lactone having a greater effect than the acid.