328. Low-Frequency Quantum Sensing

E. D. Herbschleb, I. Ohki, K. Morita, Y. Yoshii, H. Kato, T. Makino, S. Yamasaki, and N. Mizuochi; Physical Review Applied; (2022); DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.18.034058

Exquisite sensitivities are a prominent advantage of quantum sensors. Ramsey sequences allow precise measurement of direct current fields, while Hahn-echo-like sequences measure alternating current fields. However, the latter are restrained for use with high-frequency fields (above approximately 1 kHz) due to finite coherence times, leaving less-sensitive noncoherent methods for the low-frequency range. In this paper, we propose to bridge the gap with a fitting-based algorithm with a frequency-independent sensitivity to coherently measure low-frequency fields. As the algorithm benefits from coherence-based measurements, its demonstration with a single nitrogen-vacancy center gives a sensitivity of 9.4 nT Hz−0.5 for frequencies below about 0.6 kHz down to near-constant fields. To inspect the potential in various scenarios, we apply the algorithm at a background field of tens of nTs, and we measure low-frequency signals via synchronization.