413. A stimuli-responsive nanocarrier for diagnosis of seizures and inhibition of glutaminase in epilepsy

Riddhi Trivedi and Pravin Shende, International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2023), DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2023.123203

Epilepsy is marked by unpredictable and recurrent episodes of seizures. It is characterized by glutamate excitotoxicity and changes in stimuli such as pH, temperature and oxidative environment. This study aimed to formulate novel nanoparticulate theranostic nanocarrier for combined effects of diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy by: i) in-situ detection of epileptic conditions through characteristic changes in pH through the synthesis of pH-responsive polymer (CS-g-PD) and ii) ‘on-demand’ therapeutic alleviation of epileptic seizures through an inhibitor of glutaminase, 6-diazo-5-oxo-norleucine (DON). The formulation of DON-CS-g-PD-SLNs possessed nanodimensions (∼197.56 ± 17.87) nm and zeta potential (4.19 ± 0.29), with entrapment efficiency of (80.29 ± 0.006%). The coating pH-responsive polymer showed good sensitivity for acidic conditions by releasing the drug in pH 6.4 and resisting release in higher pH 7.2. In-vivo studies in Wistar rats showed suppression of epileptic seizures, escalation in the duration latency and reduction in duration of convulsions and recovery period. Furthermore, it was also successful in reducing the levels of glutaminase (p < 0.0001) in the brain of PTZ-kindled rats, thereby leading to a decrease in glutamate levels (p < 0.01). Hence, the nanocarriers show promising potential as ‘on-demand’ theranostics in epilepsy by reducing both the incidence and severity of convulsions.