46. Desktop NMR spectroscopy for real-time monitoring of an acetalization reaction in comparison with gas chromatography and NMR at 9.4 T

Kawarpal Singh, Ernesto Danieli, Bernhard Bl├╝mich, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, (2017) DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0686-y

In the present study, an acetalization reaction was investigated with compact NMR spectroscopy in real-time. Acetalization is used for multistep synthesis of the variety of organic compounds to protect particular chemical groups. A compact 1 T NMR spectrometer with a permanent magnet was employed to monitor the acid catalyzed acetalization of the p-nitrobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol. The concentrations of both reactant and product were followed by peak integrals in single-scan 1H NMR spectra as a function of time. The reaction conditions were varied in terms of temperature, agitation speed, catalyst loading, and feed concentrations in order to determine the activation energy with the help of a pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model. For low molar ratios of aldehyde and glycol, the equilibrium conversions were lower than for the stoichiometric ratio. Increasing catalyst concentration leads to faster conversion. The data obtained with low-field NMR spectroscopy were compared with data from GC and NMR spectroscopy at 9.4 T acquired in batch mode by extracting samples at regular time intervals. The reaction kinetics followed by either method agreed well.