26. Hyperpolarized 13C Metabolic Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging
Eugen Kubala, Kim A. Muñoz-Álvarez, Geoffrey Topping, Christian Hundshammer, Benedikt Feuerecker, Pedro A. Gómez, Giorgio Pariani, Franz Schilling, Steffen J. Glaser, Rolf F. Schulte, Marion I. Menzel, Markus Schwaiger, Journal of Visualized Experiments, (2016), DOI: 10.3791/54751
In the past decades, new methods for tumor staging, restaging, treatment response monitoring, and recurrence detection of a variety of cancers have emerged in conjunction with the state-of-the-art positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG PET). 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (13CMRSI) is a minimally invasive imaging method that enables the monitoring of metabolism in vivo and in real time. As with any other method based on 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), it faces the challenge of low thermal polarization and a subsequent low signal-to-noise ratio due to the relatively low gyromagnetic ratio of 13C and its low natural abundance in biological samples. By overcoming these limitations, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) with subsequent sample dissolution has recently enabled commonly used NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems to measure, study, and image key metabolic pathways in various biological systems. A particularly interesting and promising molecule used in 13CMRSI is [1-13C]pyruvate, which, in the last ten years, has been widely used for in vitro, preclinical, and, more recently, clinical studies to investigate the cellular energy metabolism in cancer and other diseases. In this article, we outline the technique of dissolution DNP using a 3.35 T preclinical DNP hyperpolarizer and demonstrate its usage in in vitro studies. A similar protocol for hyperpolarization may be applied for the most part in in vivo studies as well. To do so, we used lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalyzed the metabolic reaction of [1-13C]pyruvate to [1-13C]lactate in a prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3, in vitro using 13CMRSI.