The study aim was to evaluate a small low-field NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) scanner, the NMR-MOUSE®, for detecting changes in intestinal diffusion under different (patho-) physiological perfusion states.
Laparotomy was performed on 8 female landrace pigs (body weight 70±6 kg) and the feeding vessels of several intestinal loops were dissected. Successively, the intestinal loops were examined using O2C (oxygen to see, LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany) for microcirculatory monitoring and the NMR-MOUSE® for diffusion measurement (fast and slow components). On each loop the baseline measurement (physiological perfusion) was followed by one of the following main procedures: method 1 –ischemia; method 2 –flow reduction; method 3 –intraluminal glucose followed by ischemia; method 4 –intraluminal glucose followed by flow reduction. Additionally, standard perioperative monitoring (blood pressure, ECG, blood gas analyses) and histological assessment of intestinal biopsies was performed.
There was no statistical overall time and method effect in the NMR-MOUSE measurement (fast component: ptime = 0.6368, pmethod = 0.9766, slow component: ptime = 0.8216, pmethod = 0.7863). Yet, the fast component of the NMR-MOUSE measurement showed contrary trends during ischemia (increase) versus flow reduction (decrease). The slow-to-fast diffusion ratio shifted slightly towards slow diffusion during flow reduction. The O2C measurement showed a significant decrease of oxygen saturation and microcirculatory blood flow during ischemia and flow reduction (p < .0001). The local microcirculatory blood amount (rHb) showed a significant mucosal increase (pClamping(method 1) = 0.0007, pClamping(method 3) = 0.0119), but a serosal decrease (pClamping(method 1) = 0.0119, pClamping(method 3) = 0.0078) during ischemia. The histopathological damage was significantly higher with increasing experimental duration and at the end of methods 3 and 4 (p < .0001,Fisher-test).
Monitoring intestinal diffusion changes due to different perfusion states using the NMR-MOUSE is feasible under experimental conditions. Despite the lack of statistical significance, this technique reflects perfusion changes and therefore seems promising for the evaluation of different intestinal perfusion states in the future. Beforehand however, an optimization of this technology, including the optimization of the penetration depth, as well as further validation studies under physiological conditions and including older animals are required.
R. Keschenau, H. Klingel, S. Reuter, A.C. Foldenauer, J. Viess, D. Weidener, J. Andruszkow, B. Bluemich, R. Tolba, M.J. Jacobs, J. Kalder, Evaluation of the NMR-MOUSE as a new method for continuous functional monitoring of the small intestine during different perfusion states in a porcine model, PLoS One 13 (2018) e0206697 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206697